Colorectal Cancer in the United States
Colorectal cancer incidence overall has been declining for several decades due to changing patterns in risk factors and the uptake of screening, although this reflects the higher rates in older adults and masks trends in young age groups. During the most recent 10 years for which data are available (2005 to 2014), incidence rates declined by 3.8% annually for colon cancer and by 3.5% annually for rectal cancer among adults 55 years of age and older, but increased by 1.4% and 2.4%, respectively, among those younger than age 55. (Source: American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts and Figures 2018).
Colorectal Cancer in South Carolina
- Colorectal cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women combined. It is also the 2nd most common cause of cancer death in both men and women combined. (SCCCR 2018).
- Men are 30% more likely to get colorectal cancer and 46% more likely to die from it than women.
- Blacks have higher rates of getting (21%) and dying (50%) from colorectal cancer than whites.
Importance of Colorectal Cancer Screening
Screening has the potential to prevent colorectal cancer, because most colorectal cancers develop from mild polyps. Polyps are noncancerous growths in the colon and rectum. Though most polyps will not become cancerous, detecting and removing them through screening can actually prevent cancer from occurring. Polyps and early stage colon cancer often have no symptoms, making them a "silent killer." Being screened at the recommended frequency increases the likelihood that when colorectal cancer is present, it will be detected at an earlier stage— when it is more likely to be cured, treatment is less extensive and the recovery is faster.
Newest guidelines state screening should start at age 45 and continue until age 75 for most men and women. Routine screening between ages 76-85 is not recommended. [Sources: American Cancer Society; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)]
- Uses a scope to view inner lining of the large intestine (rectum and colon). The scope is a thin, flexible tube with a tiny video camera at its tip.
- Helps find ulcers, colon polyps, tumors and areas of inflammation or bleeding.
- Before this test, you will need to clean out your colon (colon prep). Colon prep takes 1 to 2 days, depending on which type of prep your doctor recommends. Some preps may be done the evening before the test. Plan to stay home during your prep time, since you will need to use the bathroom often.
Advantage of Colonoscopy
If necessary, polyps or other types of abnormal tissue can be removed through the scope during a colonoscopy. Tissue samples (biopsies) can be taken during a colonoscopy, as well.
How often: Every 10 years.
FECAL IMMUNOCHEMICAL TESTS (FIT)
- Needs specimens from 2 bowel movements
- Uses antibodies to detect blood in the stool
- Results not influenced by foods or medications
- Will need to get a colonoscopy if postive result
Advantages of FIT
- Less expensive than colonoscopy
- No bowel preparation
- Done in privacy at home or at doctor’s office
- No need for time off work
- No assistance getting home after the procedure
How often: Once a year.
Chronic Diseases Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk
According to the American Cancer Society, the following risk factors can increase the risk of getting colorectal cancer:
Increased and High Risks for Colorectal Cancer
- Family history of colorectal cancer - People with a first-degree relative (parent, sibling or child) who have had colorectal cancer have 2 to 3 times the risk of developing the disease compared to individuals with no family history. If the relative was diagnosed at a young age or if there is more than one affected relative, risk increases to 3 to 6 times that of the general population. About 20% of all colorectal cancer patients have a close relative who was diagnosed with the disease.
- Personal history of
- Adenomatous polyps
- Colorectal cancer
- Inflammatory bowel disease
- Ulcerative colitis
- Crohn's disease
People with increased and higher risk conditions are not candidates for the FIT test; must be screened with colonoscopy.
What You Can Do to Reduce Your Risk of Colorectal Cancer
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Cancer Society recommend the following to help reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer:
- Get screened regularly.
- Adopt a physically active lifestyle. Physical activity is primary prevention for many chronic diseases and conditions including cancer, diabetes, arthritis pain, heart disease and stroke.
- Maintain a healthy weight. Good nutrition is also primary prevention for many chronic diseases and conditions, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease and stroke. Eat a healthy diet; specifically:
- Aim to eat 5 or more servings of a variety of vegetables and fruits each day.
- Choose whole grains instead of processed (refined) grains.
- Limit your consumption of processed and red meats.
- Decrease your intake of high-fat foods.
- Get the recommended levels of calcium and vitamin D for your age and sex.
- WISEWOMAN Program - DHEC's Well-Integrated Screening and Evaluation for Women Across the Nation (WISEWOMAN) provides health screenings and lifestyle education for women who qualify to help reduce their risk for heart disease and stroke.
- Limit alcoholic beverages.
- Don't smoke or use tobacco products.
You may be eligible for screening through the Colon Cancer Network.
State Employees and their spouses covered under the State Health Plan (PEBA) may not have to pay for colon screenings.
PEBA Perks has removed a patient's out-of-pocket cost for diagnostic colonoscopies and routine screenings, including the pre-surgical consultation, the generic prep kit, the procedure itself and associated anesthesia. The Standard and Savings Plans follow the age recommendations set by the United States Preventive Services Task Force for routine colonoscopies.
Join the South Carolina Cancer Alliance (SCCA) to become more informed of cancer control activities in South Carolina.
- Find opportunities to collaborate with new partners.
- Receive communications updates.
- Become a part of local, state and nationwide efforts to reduce the cancer burden.