The Saluda River Basin (hydrologic unit 03050109) is located in Greenville, Pickens, Anderson, Abbeville, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Saluda, Lexington, and Richland Counties, and encompasses 2,523 square miles. The 21 watersheds extend from the Blue Ridge (mountain) through the Piedmont and into the Sand Hills. The Saluda River Basin encompasses 1,614,856 acres of which 53.7% is forested land, 26.1% is agricultural land, 12.9% is urban land, 4.2% is water, 2.1% is forested wetland, and 1.0% is barren land. The urban land is comprised of the Cities of Greenville and Columbia, and to a lesser extent the Cities of Laurens and Newberry. There are a total of 5,609 stream miles and 69,198 acres of lake waters in the Saluda River Basin.
The Oolenoy River flows into the South Saluda River, which merges with the North Saluda River to form the Saluda River. Downstream from the confluence, the Saluda River flows past the City of Greenville and is joined by Georges Creek, Big Brushy Creek, Big Creek, and Broad Mouth Creek before forming the headwaters of Lake Greenwood. The Reedy River is joined by Huff Creek and flows through Boyd Mill Pond before joining the Saluda River in the Lake Greenwood headwaters. Rabon Creek flows out of Lake Rabon and into the Reedy River arm of Lake Greenwood. Just downstream of the lake, Ninety Six Creek flows into the Saluda River near the Town of Greenwood. The Little River originates near the City of Laurens and drains into the Saluda River between Lakes Greenwood and Murray. The Saluda River together with the Little Saluda River and the Bush River then form the headwaters of Lake Murray. The Saluda River emerges from the Lake Murray dam and joins the Broad River Basin at the City of Columbia to form the Congaree River.